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2017年10月22日 星期日

世界第四代噴射戰鬥機-俄羅斯與中國以及伊朗篇(World 4th Generation Jet Fighter Aircrafts-Russia&China&Iran)-2017

跟北約國家以及日本設計的戰鬥機相比,俄羅斯與中國在電子科技上至少落後西方國家十年,西方國家的第四代戰機在進入19801990年代後便多是配備電子化座艙如抬頭顯示儀等,但很多俄製戰鬥機目前卻還是配備舊式機械式的儀錶板,使得其戰鬥機在空戰中或許在空氣動力上有優勢,卻可能因電子設備的落後而落居下風。加上俄制發動機設計壽命且可靠性遠低於西方戰機,中國仿製的更低,在服役年限內必須時常更換發動機維修也是俄製戰鬥機為人所詬病的。(本文主要討論第四代噴射戰鬥機,至於4.5代戰機則依衍生型帶過,不作特別討論。)
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俄羅斯/前蘇聯
Mikoyan MiG-29 'Fulcrum'


MiG-29的歷史始於1969年,當蘇聯獲知美國空軍正在進行「FX」計劃(即最終形成F-15的計劃)時。蘇聯意識到新的美國戰機將會對蘇聯現有的所有戰鬥機都形成巨大的技術優勢,因此蘇聯需具有優異的運動性和高性能的航電系統的戰機。對此,俄國參謀本部發出先進戰術戰鬥機(Perspektivnyi Frontovoi IstrebitelPFI)的需求案,性能要求相當高,包括高航程,優異的短場起降能力(包含使用簡易機場的能力),高敏捷性,超過兩馬赫極速和重武裝。新飛機的空氣動力設計交由蘇聯空氣動力研究所(TsAGI)負責,成果與蘇凱飛機設計局一同分享。
光只有先進戰術戰鬥機的單價會過高,依當時國房預算總生產數量將無法滿足蘇聯空防等需求,於是在1971年將本計畫拆成兩個子計畫,重型先進戰術戰鬥機(Tyazholyi Perspektivnyi Frontovoi Istrebitel, TPFI)和輕型先進戰術戰鬥機(Legkiy Perspektivnyi Frontovoi Istrebitel, LPFI)。同時美國空軍也發現相同問題,因此推出輕型戰鬥機(Lightweight Fighter)的計畫也就是F-16戰隼以及YF-17。重型戰機的計畫依舊由蘇凱設計局負責,輕型戰機的計畫則交由米格飛機設計局,Su-27側衛即是前者的成果,後者在1974年提出9(Product 9)計畫案,也就是MiG-29A
開發歷程
MiG-29 (Product 9.12)
Initial production version; entered service in 1983. NATO reporting code is "Fulcrum-A".
MiG-29B-12 (Product 9.12A)
Downgraded export version for non-Warsaw Pact nations. Lacked a nuclear weapon delivery system and possessed downgraded radar, ECM and IFF. NATO reporting code is "Fulcrum-A".
MiG-29UB-12 (Product 9.51)
Twin seat training model. Infra-red sensor mounted only, no radar. NATO reporting code is "Fulcrum-B".
MiG-29S
The MiG-29S is similar in external appearance to older MiG-29B airframes, except for the dorsal hump behind the cockpit canopy. Differences start with the improvements in the flight control system. Four new computers provide better stability augmentation and controllability with an increase of 2° in angle of attack (AoA). Its improved mechanical-hydraulic flight control system allows for greater control surface deflections. The MiG-29S's dorsal hump, earning it the nickname "Fatback" in service, was originally believed to be for additional fuel, but in fact, most of its volume is used for the new L-203BE Gardenyia-1 ECM system.Also improve new air-to-air missiles like R-27E (AA-10 "Alamo") and R-77 (AA-12 "Adder")& new radar Phazotron N019M. Add drop tanks for a larger payload and has a limited ground-attack capability with unguided munitions.
MiG-29S-13 (Product 9.13)
MiG-29 variant similar to the 9.12, but with an enlarged fuselage spine containing additional fuel and a Gardeniya active jammer. Product 9.13S is also version with the same airframe as the 9.13, but with an increased external weapons load of 4,000 kg, and provision for two underwing fuel tanks. Radar upgraded to N019ME, providing an ability to track 10 targets and engage 2 simultaneously. Compatible with the Vympel R-77 (AA-12 "Adder") air-to-air missile (similar to the AIM-120 AMRAAM). NATO reporting code is 'Fulcrum-C'.
MiG-29SM (Product 9.13M)
Similar to the 9.13, but with the ability to carry guided air-to-surface missiles and TV- and laser-guided bombs. NATO reporting code is 'Fulcrum-C'.
MiG-29G/MiG-29GT
It was an upgrade standard for the German Luftwaffe's MiG-29 / 29UB, inherited from the former East Germany to the NATO standards. Works was done by MiG Aircraft Product Support GmbH (MAPS), a joint venture company form between MiG Moscow Aviation Production Association and DaimlerChrysler Aerospace in 1993.[76]
MiG-29AS/MiG-29UBS (MiG-29SD)
Slovak Air Force performed an upgrade on their MiG-29/-29UB for NATO compatibility. Work is done by RAC MiG and Western firms, starting from 2005. The aircraft now has navigation and communications systems from Rockwell Collins, an IFF system from BAE Systems, new glass cockpit features multi-function LCD displays and digital processors and also fitted to be integrate with Western equipment in the future. However, the armaments of the aircraft remain unchanged. 12 out of 21 of the entire MiG-29 fleet were upgraded and had been delivered as of late February, 2008.
MiG-29 Sniper
Upgrade planned for Romanian Air Force, by Israeli firms. First flight occurred on 5 May 2000. The program was halted along with the retiring of Romanian MiG-29s in 2003. The latter occurred because of high maintenance costs, which led to the Romanian Government's decision to halt the MiG-29 program and further invest in the MiG-21 LanceR program.


Mikoyan MiG-31



開發歷程
Ye-155MP projects Three alternative configurations explored: swing-wing aircraft, Ye-158 tailless delta and Izdelye 518-55 two-seat MiG-25 with new wing. Latter developed into Ye-155MP.
Ye-155MP MiG-31 prototype based on the Ye-155M advanced MiG-25 test aircraft. No wing root extensions. [MiG-25MP, Izdelye 83]
Ye-155MF Projected variant with side-by-side cockpit dedicated to SEAD (anti-SAM) role.
MiG-31 ‘Foxhound-A’ First production interceptor model. [Izdelye 01]
MiG-31LL One early MiG-31 converted as dedicated test aircraft with fairings for cameras on wingtips.
MiG-31DZ ‘Foxhound-A’ Unofficial designation for slightly improved MiG-31 production version with in-flight refuelling (IFR) probe installed to port of front cockpit. [Izdelye 01DZ]
MiG-31B ‘Foxhound-A’ Improved interceptor model with in-flight refueling capability, Zaslon-A radar, an updated navigation system, and compatibility with the R-33S missile [Izdelye 01B, Izdelye 12]
MiG-31BS ‘Foxhound-A’ Original MiG-31 models upgraded to the MiG-31B standard. [Izdelye 01BS]
MiG-31E Proposed export model; 1 prototype built but production then cancelled. [Izdelye 01BE]
MiG-31M ‘Foxhound-B’ Significantly improved production interceptor with cockpit enhancements, refined aerodynamics, IFR probe moved to starboard side, uprated D-30F-6M engines, increased fuel capacity, improved Zaslon-M radar, two additional weapons hardpoints under fuselage, and the ability to carry the improved R-37/AA-9 missile; 7 prototypes were built but further development appears to have have halted due to funding cuts. [Izdelye 05]
MiG-31D Anti-satellite interceptor designed to carry single large anti-satellite missile under fuselage. Large triangular endplate fins on wing tips. 2 prototypes built but production cancelled. [Izdelye 07]
MiG-31BM Proposed upgrade program to add a surface-attack capability to MiG-31 interceptor models, includes radar upgrades for ground mapping and better resolution plus the ability to carry advanced air-to-surface missiles like the Kh-31, Kh-59, Kh-59M, and Kh-29T/L as well as more capable air-to-air missiles. 1 prototype converted by 1999.
MiG-31FE Proposed multi-role export version of the MiG-31BM. Adapted for delivery of air-to-surface weapons.
MiG-31S Projected launch vehicle for small space vehicles.


總生產量
Design Centre
Head of Design Team:Gleb Lozino-Lozinski, later Konstantin Vasilchenko, now Anatoli BelosvetDesign Office:Mikoyan Design Bureau Engineering Centre, 6 Leningradskoe shosse, 1252999 Moscow

Manufacture

IGAZ Sokol
(IGAZ Sokol, Gorky**)
Version Quantity Assembly Location Time Period
Ye-155MP 2 MiG OKB, Moscow 1972-1976
MiG-31 280 Gorky 1977-1989
MiG-31DZ 45 Gorky 1990-1991
MiG-31B 162? Gorky 1990-April 1994
MiG-31E 1+ Gorky 19??
MiG-31M 7 Gorky 1985-1995
MiG-31D 2 Gorky 1987
MiG-31FE 1 Gorky 19??-19??
Total: 500



** now called Nizhny Novgorod.
Total Produced:500 a/c
服役國家
Kazakhstan – Air Force (MiG-31)
Russia – Air Defence Force (PVO)* (MiG-31/31B/31BM)

Sukhoi Su-27 'Flanker'

是在前蘇聯時期由蘇霍設計的單座雙發動機全天候重型戰鬥機。其北約命名稱為側衛(Flanker)
Su-27
由原蘇聯開發設計來對抗1970年代美軍開發的戰機所發展的空優型戰鬥機,主要的假想敵是F-15,並用來取代Tu-128Su-15以及Yak-28P等三款攔截機。設計要求長航程、重武裝與極高的操控靈活性以因應蘇聯空軍對有遠距續航能力與大載彈量的戰鬥機的需求而設計的,也由於其氣體動力學的表現出色使其能輕易從事包加契夫眼鏡蛇與大鎯頭等高難度的動作使其推出後成為各大航空展的焦點,Su-27除了以擔任空優任務為主的機型之外,後來也陸續發展出包含海軍型在內的各種任務衍生型戰機
開發歷程
蘇聯時期
T10S: Improved prototype configuration, more similar to production spec.
P-42: Special version built to beat climb time records. The aircraft had all armament, radar and paint removed, which reduced weight to 14,100 kg. It also had improved engines.
Su-27 Preproduction series built in small numbers with AL-31 engine
Su-27S (Su-27 / "Flanker-B"): Initial production single-seater with improved AL-31F engine. The "T10P" or "Su-27P" designation is sometimes used for Su-27S single-seaters stripped of secondary strike capability, assigned to Soviet Air Defence Forces units.
Su-27UB ("Flanker-C"): Initial production two-seat operational conversion trainer.
Su-27SK: Export Su-27 single-seater.
Su-27UBK: Export Su-27UB two-seater.
Su-27K (Su-33 / "Flanker-D"): Carrier-based single-seater with folding wings, high-lift devices, and arresting gear, built in small numbers. They followed the "T10K" prototypes and demonstrators.
俄羅斯時期
Su-27PD: Single-seat demonstrator with improvements such as inflight refueling probe.
Su-27PU (Su-30): Two-seat limited production machine with improvements such as inflight refueling probe, fighter direction avionics, new flight control system, and so on.
Su-30M / Su-30MK: Next-generation multirole two-seater. Apparently a few Su-30Ms were built for Russian evaluation in the mid-1990s, though nothing much came of the effort. The Su-30MK export variant was embodied as a series of two demonstrators of different levels of capability. Versions include Su-30MKA for Algeria, Su-30MKI for India, Su-30MKK for China, and Su-30MKM for Malaysia.
Su-27M (Su-35/-37, Flanker-E/F): Improved demonstrators for an advanced single-seat multirole Su-27S derivative. These also included a two-seat "Su-35UB" demonstrator.
Su-27SM (Flanker-B Mod. 1): Upgraded Russian Su-27S, featuring technology evaluated in the Su-27M demonstrators.
Su-27SKM: Single-seat multirole fighter for export. It is a derivative of the Su-27SK but includes upgrades such as advanced cockpit, more sophisticated self-defense electronic countermeasures (ECM) and an in-flight refueling system.
Su-27UBM: Comparable upgraded Su-27UB two-seater.
Su-27M2: 4.5 gen block upgrade for russian Su-27, featuring some technology of the Su-35BM, it includes Irbis-E radar, and upgraded engines and avionics.
Su-32 (Su-27IB): Two-seat dedicated long-range strike variant with side-by-side seating in "platypus" nose. Prototype of Su-32FN and Su-34 'Fullback'.
Su-27KUB: Essentially an Su-27K carrier-based single-seater with a side-by-side cockpit, for use as a naval carrier trainer or multirole aircraft.
Su-35BM/Su-35S: Also dubbed "The Last Flanker" is latest development from Sukhoi Flanker family. It features newer avionics and new radar.

Sukhoi Su-30 'Flanker C'


Sukhoi Su-33 'Flanker D'


Sukhoi Su-32(export)/34 'Fullback'

中國
Shenyang J-11(
仿製俄羅斯Su-27)


Shenyang J-11B



中以俄合作
Chengdu J-10



中巴合作
CAC/PAC FC-1/JF-17 'Thunder' / Chengdu FC-1 'Owlet Dragon'


伊朗
Saeqeh-80

實驗機種
前蘇聯
Yak-141

中國

J-9

photo source:Internet&wikipedia

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