航空攻擊任務主要用於支援地面部隊密接航空支援任務(CAS(Close Air support))的攻擊機，稱為密接支援機，一般裝了對地攻擊武器的攻擊機或者輕攻擊機並無法勝任此任務而必須開開特殊機種來擔任此任務，目前最著名的當屬A-10攻擊機。傳統上前蘇聯設計的攻擊機本就以密接支援任務為主，賦予襲撃者的稱號，並沿用到俄羅斯聯邦。
A-10 Thunderbolt II
A-10 Thunderbolt II
The A-10 has been flown exclusively by the United States Air Force and its Air Reserve components, the Air Force Reserve Command(AFRC) and the Air National Guard (ANG). The USAF operates 173 A-10C aircraft (54 in active duty, 55 in AFRC, and 64 in ANG) (as of FY 2014).
Single-seat close air support, ground-attack version. (All updated to A-10C)
A-10As used for airborne forward air control. (All updated to A-10C)
YA-10B Night/Adverse Weather
Two-seat experimental prototype, for work at night and in bad weather. The one YA-10B prototype was converted from an A-10A.
A-10As updated under the incremental Precision Engagement (PE) program.
Proposed unmanned version developed by Raytheon and Aurora Flight Sciences as part of DARPA's Persistent Close Air Support program.The PCAS program eventually dropped the idea of using an optionally manned A-10.
Proposed by the South Dakota School of Mines and Technology to replace its North American T-28 Trojan thunderstorm penetration aircraft. The A-10 would have its military engines, avionics, and oxygen system replaced by civilian versions. The engines and airframe would receive protection from hail, and the GAU-8 Avenger would be replaced with ballast or scientific instruments.
United States Air Force
Air Force Reserve Command(AFRC)
Two prototypes converted in 1978 from existing AV-8A airframes (BuNos 158394 and 158395).
AV-8B Harrier II sans suffix
The initial "day attack" variant.
AV-8B Harrier II Night Attack
Improved version with a forward-looking infrared (FLIR) camera, an upgraded cockpit with night-vision goggle compatibility, and the more powerful Rolls Royce Pegasus 11 engine. This variant was originally planned to be designated AV-8D.
AV-8B Harrier II Plus
Similar to the Night Attack variant, with the addition of an APG-65 radar. It is used by the USMC, Spanish Navy, and Italian Navy. Forty-six new-built aircraft were assembled from 1993-1997.
TAV-8B Harrier II
Two-seat trainer version.
EAV-8B Matador II
Company designation for the Spanish Navy version.
EAV-8B Matador II Plus
The AV-8B Harrier II Plus, ordered for the Spanish Navy.
BAe Harrier GR5, GR7, GR9
United States Marine Corps
United States Navy
United States Navy
MiG-23B("Flogger-F") The requirement for a new fighter-bomber had become obvious in the late 1960s, and the MiG-23 appeared to be suitable type for such conversion. The first prototype of the project, "32–34", flew for the first time on 20 August 1970. The MiG-23B had a redesigned forward fuselage, but was otherwise similar to the MiG-23S. The pilot seat was raised to improve visibility, and the windscreen was armored. The nose was flat-bottomed and tapered down. There was no radar; instead it had a PrNK Sokol-23 ground attack sight system, which included an analog computer, a laser rangefinder and the PBK-3 bomb sight. The navigation suite and autopilot were also improved to provide more accurate bombing. It retained the GSh-23L gun, and its maximum warload was increased to 3000 kg by strengthening the pylons. Survivability was improved by an electronic warfare (EW) suite and inert gas system in the fuel tanks to prevent fire. The first prototype had a MiG-23S type wing, but subsequent examples had the larger "type 2" wing. Most importantly, instead of an R-29 variant, aircraft was powered by the Lyulka AL-21 turbojet with a maximum thrust of 11,500 kp. The production of this variant was limited, however, as the supply of AL-21 engines was needed for the Sukhoi Su-17 and Su-24 production lines. In addition, this engine was not cleared for export. Only three MiG-23B prototypes and 24 production aircraft were produced in 1971–72.
MiG-23BK("Flogger-H") These were exported to Warsaw Pact countries—but not to Third World customers—and thus had the PrNK-23 navigation and attack system. Additional radar warning receivers were also mounted on the intakes.
MiG-23BN("Flogger-H") Produced since 1973, the MiG-23BN was based on MiG-23B, but had the same R-29-300 engine as contemporary fighter variants. They were also fitted with "type 3" wings. There were other minor changes in electronics and equipment, and some changes were made during its long production run. Serial production lasted until 1985, with 624 built. Most of them were exported, as the Soviets always viewed it as an interim type and only a small number served in Frontal Aviation regiments. As usual, a downgraded version was sold to Third World customers. This variant proved to be fairly popular and effective. The most distinctive identifying feature between the MiG-23B and MiG-23BN was that the former had the dielectric head just above the pylon, which was removed from the MiG-23BN. In India, the last MiG-23BNs were flown by 221 Squadron (Valiants) of Indian Air Force and were decommissioned on 6 March 2009. Wing Commander Tapas Ranjan Sahu, was the last pilot to land the MiG-23BN on that day.
MiG-23BM ("Flogger-D") This was a MiG-23BK upgrade, with the PrNK-23M replacing the original PrNK-23, and a digital computer replacing the original analog computer. Introduced into service as MiG-27.
MiG-23BM experimental aircraft ("Flogger-D") The MiG-23 ground-attack versions had too much "fighter heritage" for an attack aircraft, and a new design with more radical changes was developed (later to be re-designated as the MiG-27). The MiG-23BM experimental aircraft served as a predecessor to the MiG-27 and it differs from the standard MiG-23BM and other MiG-23 models in that its dielectric heads were directly on the wing roots, instead of on the pylons.
Czech Air Force: MiG-23BN(historical)
Ethiopian Air Force; 32 MiG-23BN/UBs in service for ground attack role.
Ethiopian Air Force; 32 MiG-23BN/UBs in service for ground attack role.
German Air Force: MiG-23BN(historical)
Indian air Force: MiG-23BN(historical)
Soviet Air force: MiG-23BN
Sudanese Air Force: MiG-23BN/UB
Sudanese Air Force: MiG-23BN/UB
Yemen Air Force: 44 MiG-23BN/UBs in service
MiG-27 (NATO: "Flogger-D") Introduced in 1975, simplified ground-attack version with simple pitot air intakes, no radar and a simplified engine with two position afterburner nozzle.
The first Flogger attack variant was powered by the AL-21F. Only 24 were produced, due a lack of engines (the AL-21F was destined for the Sukhoi Su-17/22and the Su-24 Fencer). It was armed with the GSh-23L cannon, carrying 200 rounds.
Derived from the MiG-23B, but powered by the R29B-300 engine. This gave the advantage of making this variant exportable (the AL-21F was a restricted engine at the time, unlike the R29B-300). The R29B-300 also offered commonality with the MiG-23MS and MiG-23MF fighter variants already sold to the rest of world. It was armed with the GSh-23L cannon, with 200 rounds.
This was the first in the MiG-27 family to have a canopy without the central frame, suggesting that the ejection seat was designed to directly break through the transparency. The dielectric head above the pylon on the MiG-23 was used on the MiG-27 to house electro-optical and radio-frequency gear instead. It was also the first variant armed with a Gryazev-Shipunov GSh-6-30M Gatling gun. Its NATO reporting name was Flogger-D.
NATO reporting name: Flogger-J2. The MiG-27K was most advanced variant Soviet version, with a laser designator and compatibility with TV-guided electro-optical weapons. It carried the GSh-6-30 cannon. Around 200 were built.
NATO reporting name: Flogger-J. This model was a cheaper variant than the MiG-27K, but much better than the MiG-23B, MiG-23BN, and MiG-27 (MiG-23BM), with the electro-optical and radio-frequency heads above the glove pylons deleted. It was first armed with the GSh-6-23M Gatling gun, but this was later replaced by a new 30 mm GSh-6-30 six-barrel cannon with 260 rounds of ammunition in a fuselage gondola. It also received much-improved electronic countermeasure (ECM) systems, and a new PrNK-23K nav/attack system providing automatic flight control, gun firing, and weapons release. However, this modification was not very successful because of the heavy recoil from the new cannon, and bursts longer than two or three seconds often led to permanent damage to the airframe. Test pilot V. N. Kondaurov described the first firing of the GSh-6-30А:"As I imposed the central mark on the air target and pressed the trigger to shoot, I heard such noise that I involuntarily drew my hand aside. The whole plane began to vibrate from the shooting and had almost stopped from the strong recoil of the gun. The pilotless target, which was just making a turn ahead of me, was literally disintegrating into pieces. I have hardly come to my senses from unexpectedness and admiration: This is a calibre! Such a beast! If you hit something — it will be plenty enough [to wipe it out]". A total of 200 MiG-27Ms were built from 1978 to 1983, plus 160 for India, and it is currently in service with the Sri Lanka Air Force.
All MiG-27D are MiG-27s (MiG-23BMs) upgraded to MiG-27M standard. It is very difficult to distinguish from the MiG-27M. 305 were upgraded.
This was an export variant of the MiG-27M provided in 1986 to India in knock-down kits for license-assembly. It was the same as the MiG-27M, except the undernose fairing for the infra-red search and track(IRST) sensor had a single window instead of several, like the one on the original MiG-27M. A total of 150 were assembled by India. India refers to this model as the MiG-27M Bahadur, while MiG-27L is the Mikoyan export designation.
This was a 1988 indigenous Indian upgrade of its license-assembled MiG-27L with French avionics, which provides the same level of performance, but with much reduced size and weight. The capabilities of the aircraft are being enhanced by the incorporation of modern avionics systems consisting primarily of two Multi-Function Displays (MFDs) Mission and Display Processor (MDP), Sextant Ring Laser Gyros (RLG INSI), combined GPS/GLONASS navigation, HUD with UFCP, Digital Map Generator (DMG), jam-resistant Secured Communication, stand-by UHF communication, data link and a comprehensive Electronic Warfare (EW) Suite. A mission planning and retrieval facility, VTR and HUD Camera will also be fitted. The aircraft retains stand-by (conventional) instrumentation, including artificial horizon, altimeter and airspeed indicator, to cater for the failure of HUD and the MFDs. The MiG-27s are also being endowed with the French Agave or Russian Komar radar. The installation of the radar would give the MiG-27 anti-ship and some air-to-air capability. It is expected that at least 140 of the 180 aircraft will be converted from MiG-27MLs.
Indian Air Force: 165 MiG-27Ms licenced built by HAL. To be retired by 2017.
Kazakh Air and Air Defence Forces: An estimated 12 MiG-23UB/MiG-27 are still operational.
The Russian Air Force retired their aircraft from front-line use. They are still in reserve and in storage.
The Soviet Air Force passed their aircraft on to successor states.
Sri Lanka Air Force : 10 in total bought from Ukraine. 6 in service, 3 crashed, one destroyed on the ground by LTTE insurgents.
The Ukrainian Air Force has retired their aircraft.
An early project in the gestation of the Su-24, like a meld of the Su-7 and Su-15.
The initial prototype with cropped delta wings and 4 RD-36-35 lift engines in the fuselage.
T6-2I / T6-3I / T6-4I
Prototypes for the variable geometry Su-24 production aircraft.
The first production version, the armaments include Kh-23 and Kh-28 type air-to-ground guided missiles, together with R-55 type air-to-air guided missiles.Manufactured 1971–1983.
Work on upgrading the Su-24 was started in 1971, and included the addition of inflight refueling and expansion of attack capabilities with even more payload options.T-6M-8 prototype first flew on 29 June 1977, and the first production Su-24M flew on 20 June 1979. The aircraft was accepted into service in 1983. Su-24M has a 0.76 m (30 in) longer fuselage section forward of the cockpit, adding a retractable refueling probe, and a reshaped, shorter radome for the attack radar. It can be identified by the single nose probe in place of the three-part probe of earlier aircraft. A new PNS-24Minertial navigation system and digital computer were also added. A Kaira-24 laser designator/TV-optical quantum system (similar to the American Pave Tack) was fitted in a bulge in the port side of the lower fuselage, as well as Tekon track and search system (in pod), for compatibility with guided weapons, including 500 and 1,500kg laser-guided bombs and TV-guided bombs, and laser/TV-guided missiles Kh-25 and Kh-29L/T, anti-radar missiles Kh-58 and Kh-14 (AS-12 'Kegler') and Kh-59 (AS-13 'Kingbolt')/Kh-59M TV-target seeker guided missiles. The new systems led to a reduction in internal fuel amounting to 85 l (22.4 US gal). Su-24M was manufactured in 1981–1993.
Next modernization of Su-24M introduced in 2000 with the “Sukhoi” program and in 1999 with the “Gefest” program. The modernized planes are equipped with new equipment and systems. As a result, they get new capabilities and improved combat efficiency, including new navigation system (SVP-24), new weapons control system, new HUD (ILS-31, like in Su-27SM or KAI-24) and expanding list of usable munitions (Kh-31A/P, Kh-59MK, KAB-500S). The last batch of the Sukhoi was delivered to the Russian VVS in 2009. Modernization continues with the program “Gefest”. All frontline bombers Su-24 in the Central Military District (CVO) received new sighting and navigation systems SVP-24 in 2013.
Export version of the Su-24M with downgraded avionics and weapons capabilities. First flight 30 May 1987 as T-6MK, 17 May 1988 as Su-24MK. Manufactured 1988–1992, sold to Algeria, Iran, Iraq, Libya, and Syria.
Dedicated tactical reconnaissance variant. First flight 25 July 1980 as T-6MR-26, 13 April 1983 as Su-24MR. Entered service in 1983. Su-24MR retains much of the Su-24M's navigation suite, including the terrain-following radar, but deletes the Orion-A attack radar, the laser/TV system, and the cannon in favor of two panoramic camera installations, 'Aist-M' ('Stork') TV camera, RDS-BO 'Shtik' ('Bayonet') side-looking airborne radar (SLAR), and 'Zima' ('Winter') infrared reconnaissance system. Other sensors are carried in pod form. Manufactured 1983–1993.
Dedicated electronic signals intelligence (ELINT) variant, intended to replace the Yak-28PP 'Brewer-E'. First flight 14 March 1980 as T-6MP-25, 7 April 1983 as Su-24MP. The Su-24MP has additional antennas for intelligence-gathering sensors, omitting the laser/TV fairing, but retaining the cannon and provision for up to four R-60 (AA-8) missiles for self-defense. Only 10 were built.
Algerian Air Force – 34 Su-24MKs, some upgraded to the M2 standard. 4 Su-24MRs.
Islamic Republic of Iran Air Force – 30 Su-24MKs were in service as of January 2013. 24 Iraqi examples were evacuated to Iran during the 1991 Gulf War and were put in service with the IRIAF. Iran possibly, purchased other Su-24s from Russia or other, former Soviet States. Iran tested domestically produced, anti-radar smart missiles carried by Su-24 aircraft in September 2011, the IRIAF's Deputy Commander, General Mohammad Alavi said, according to IRINN TV.
Russian Air Force – 251 Su-24Ms, 40 Su-24M2s and 79 Su-24MRs were in service in 2011.
Russian Naval Aviation– 18 were in service in 2012.
Russian Air Force – 251 Su-24Ms, 40 Su-24M2s and 79 Su-24MRs were in service in 2011.
Russian Naval Aviation– 18 were in service in 2012.
Syrian Arab Air Force – 22 received. 20 Su-24MKs from the Soviet Union, 1 Su-24MK and 1 Su-24MR from Libya 20 were in service in January 2013. All the Su-24MKs have been upgraded to SU-24M2 standard, between 2009 and 2013. The contract for that was signed in 2009 and the upgrade started in 2010.
Ukraine Air Force received 120 Su-24s. Only 25 were in service, 95 were in storage.
Sudanese Air force
Up to twelve, ex-Belarusian Air Force Su-24s were transferred to Sudan in 2013.
Belarusian Air Force
Inherited from the Soviet Union, 34 served with the Belarusian Air Force, consisting of 22 Su-24Ms and 12 Su-24MRs. All were retired from Belarusian service in 2012, with up to 12 transferred to Sudan in 2013 together with ground support.
Iraqi Air Force
30 delivered to the Iraqi Air Force, five destroyed in the 1991 Persian Gulf War, one survived in Iraq and 24 were evacuated to Iran where they were pressed into service with the Islamic Republic of Iran Air Force.
Kazakh Air and Air Defence Forces
Libyan Arab Jamahiriya
6 Su-24MKs purchased for the Libyan Air Force. Two were transferred to Syria.Out of the four planes, two were in operational condition as of February 2011, one being shot down in March 2011 at the beginning of the 2011 Libyan Civil War.The remaining three Su-24s (one operational and two not operational) were likely destroyed on the ground at Ghardabiya Air Base, by coalition aircraft on 20 March 2011, during the initial phase ofOperation Odyssey Dawn.
Soviet Air Force(historical)
Soviet Naval Aviation (historical)
The basic version of the aircraft was produced at Factory 31, at Tbilisi, in the Soviet Republic of Georgia. Between 1978 and 1989, 582 single-seat Su-25s were produced in Georgia, not including aircraft produced under the Su-25K export program. This variant of the aircraft represents the backbone of the Russian Air Force's Su-25 fleet, currently the largest in the world.The aircraft experienced a number of accidents in operational service caused by system failures attributed to salvo firing of weapons. In the wake of these incidents, use of its main armament, the 240 mm S-24 rocket, was prohibited. In its place, the FAB-500 500 kg general-purpose high-explosive bomb became the primary armament.
The basic Su-25 model was used as the basis for a commercial export variant, known as the Su-25K (Komercheskiy). This model was also built at Factory 31 in Tbilisi, Georgia. The aircraft differed from the Soviet Air Force version in certain minor details concerning internal equipment. A total of 180 Su-25K aircraft were built between 1984 and 1989.
The Su-25UB trainer (Uchebno-Boyevoy) was drawn up in 1977. The first prototype, called "T-8UB-1", was rolled out in July 1985 and its maiden flight was carried out at the Ulan-Ude factory airfield on 12 August of that year. By the end of 1986, 25 Su-25UBs had been produced at Ulan-Ude before the twin-seater completed its State trials and officially cleared for service with the Soviet Air Force.
It was intended for training and evaluation flights of active-duty pilots, and for training pilot cadets at Soviet Air Force flying schools. The performance did not differ substantially from that of the single-seater. The navigation, attack, sighting devices and weapons-control systems of the two-seater enabled it to be used for both routine training and weapons-training missions.
From 1986 to 1989, in parallel with the construction of the main Su-25UB combat training variant, the Ulan-Ude plant produced the so-called "commercial" Su-25UBK, intended for export to countries that bought the Su-25K, and with similar modifications to that aircraft.
The Su-25UBM is a twin seat variant that can be used as an operational trainer, but also has attack capabilities, and can be used for reconnaissance, target designation and airborne control. Its first flight was on 6 December 2008 and it was certified in December 2010. It will enter operational use with the Russian Air Force later. The variant has a Phazotron NIIR Kopyo radar and Bars-2 equipment on board. Su-25UBM's range is believed to be 1,300 km and it may have protection against infra-red guided missiles (IRGM), a minimal requirement on today's battle fields where IRGMs proliferate.
The Su-25UTG (Uchebno-Trenirovochnyy s Gakom) is a variant of the Su-25UB designed to train pilots in takeoff and landing on a land-based simulated carrier deck, with a sloping ski-jump section and arrester wires. The first one flew in September 1988, and approximately 10 were produced. About half remained in Russian service after 1991; they were used on Russia's sole aircraft carrier, the Admiral Kuznetsov. This small number of aircraft were insufficient to meet the training needs of Russia's carrier air group, so a number of Su-25UBs were converted into Su-25UTGs. These aircraft being distinguished by the alternative designation Su-25UBP (Uchebno-Boyevoy Palubny) —the adjectivepalubnyy meaning "deck", indicating that these aircraft have a naval function.Approximately 10 of these aircraft are currently operational in the Russian Navy as part of the 279th Naval Aviation Regiment.
The Su-25BM (Buksirovshchik Misheney) is a target-towing variant of the Su-25 whose development began in 1986. The prototype, designated T-8BM1, successfully flew for the first time on 22 March 1990, at Tbilisi. After completion of the test phase, the aircraft was put into production.
The Su-25BM target-tower was designed to provide towed target facilities for training ground forces and naval personnel in ground-to-air or naval surface-to-air missile systems. It is powered by an R-195 engine and equipped with an RSDN-10 long-range navigation system, an analogue of the Western LORANsystem.
The Su-25T (Tankovy) is a dedicated antitank version, which has been combat-tested with notable success in Chechnya. The design of the aircraft is similar to the Su-25UB ( unification of 85%). The variant was converted to one-seater, with the rear seat replaced by additional avionics. It has all-weather and night attack capability. In addition to the full arsenal of weapons of the standard Su-25, the Su-25T can employ the KAB-500Kr TV-guided bomb and the semi-active laser-guided Kh-25ML. Its enlarged nosecone houses the Shkval optical TV and aiming system with the Prichal laser rangefinder and target designator. It can also carry Vikhr laser-guided, tube-launched missiles, which is its main antitank armament. For night operations, the low-light TV Merkuriy pod system can be carried under the fuselage. Three Su-25Ts prototypes were built in 1983–86 and 8 production aircraft were built in 1990.[With the introduction of a definitive Russian Air Force Su-25 upgrade programme, in the form of Stroyevoy Modernizirovannyi, the Su-25T programme was officially canceled in 2000.
A second-generation Su-25T, the Su-25TM (also designated Su-39), has been developed with improved navigation and attack systems, and better survivability. While retaining the built-in Shkval of Su-25T, it may carry Kopyo (rus. "Spear") radar in the container under fuselage, which is used for engaging air targets (with RVV-AE/R-77 missiles) as well as ships (with Kh-31 and Kh-35 antiship missiles). The Russian Air Force has received 8 aircraft as of 2008. Some of the improved avionics systems designed for T and TM variants have been included in the Su-25SM, an interim upgrade of the operational Russian Air Force Su-25, for improved survivability and combat capability. The Su-25TM, as an all-inclusive upgrade programme has been replaced with the "affordable" Su-25SM programme.
The Su-25SM (Stroyevoy Modernizirovannyi) is an "affordable" upgrade programme for the Su-25, conceived by the Russian Air Force (RuAF) in 2000. The programme stems from the attempted Su-25T and Su-25TM upgrades, which were evaluated and labeled as over-sophisticated and expensive. The SM upgrade incorporates avionics enhancements and airframe refurbishment to extend the Frogfoot's service life by up to 500 flight hours or 5 years.
The Su-25SM's all-new PRnK-25SM "Bars" navigation/attack suite is built around the BTsVM-90 digital computer system, originally planned for the Su-25TM upgrade programme. Navigation and attack precision provided by the new suite is three times better of the baseline Su-25 and is reported to be within 15 m (49 ft) using satellite correction and 200 m (660 ft) without it.
A new KA1-1-01 Head-Up Display (HUD) was added providing, among other things, double the field of view of the original ASP-17BTs-8 electro-optical sight. Other systems and components incorporated during the upgrade include a Multi-Function Display (MFD), RSBN-85 Short Range Aid to Navigation (SHORAN), ARK-35-1 Automatic Direction Finder (ADF), A-737-01 GPS/GLONASS Receiver, Karat-B-25 Flight Data Recorder (FDR), Berkut-1 Video Recording System (VRS), Banker-2 UHF/VHF communication radio, SO-96 Transponder and a L150 "Pastel" Radar Warning Receiver (RWR).
The R-95Sh engines have been overhauled and modified with an anti-surge system installed. The system is designed to improve the resistance of the engine to ingested powders and gases during gun and rocket salvo firing.
The combination of reconditioned and new equipment, with increased automation and self-test capability has allowed for a reduction of pre- and post-flight maintenance by some 25 to 30%. Overall weight savings are around 300 kg (660 lb).
Su-25SM weapon suite has been expanded with the addition of the Vympel R-73 highly agile air-to-air missile (albeit without helmet mounted cuing and only the traditional longitudinal seeker mode) and the S-13T 130 mm rockets (carried in five-round B-13 pods) with blast-fragmentation and armour-piercing warheads. Further, the Kh-25ML and Kh-29L Weapon Employment Profiles have been significantly improved, permitting some complex missile launch scenarios to be executed, such as: firing two consecutive missiles on two different targets in a single attack pass. The GSh-30-2 cannon (250-round magazine) has received three new reduced rate-of-fire modes: 750, 375 and 188 Rounds per Minute. The Su-25SM was also given new BD3-25 under-wing pylons.
The eventual procurement programme is expected to include between 100 and 130 kits, covering 60 to 70 percent of the RuAF active single-seat fleet, as operated in the early 2000s. On 21 February 2012, Air Force spokesman Col. Vladimir Drik said that Russia will continue to upgrade its Su-25 attack aircraft to Su-25SM version, which has a significantly better survivability and combat effectiveness. The Russian Air Force currently had over 30 Su-25SMs in service and plans to modernize about 80 Su-25s by 2020, Drik said. By March 2013, over 60 aircraft are to be upgraded. In February 2013, ten new Su-25SMs were delivered to the Air Force southern base, where operational training is being conducted.
Since early 2014, the Guards Aviation Division Attack Aviation Regiment of the Southern Military District in the Krasnodar region received 16 advanced Su-25SMs.
The Su-25KM (Kommercheskiy Modernizirovannyy), nicknamed "Scorpion", is an Su-25 upgrade programme announced in early 2001 by the original manufacturer, Tbilisi Aircraft Manufacturing in Georgia, in partnership with Elbit Systems of Israel. The prototype aircraft made its maiden flight on 18 April 2001 at Tbilisi in full Georgian Air Force markings.
The aircraft uses a standard Su-25 airframe, enhanced with advanced avionics including a glass cockpit, digital map generator, helmet-mounted display, computerised weapons system, complete mission pre-plan capability, and fully redundant backup modes. Performance enhancements include a highly accurate navigation system, pinpoint weapon delivery systems, all-weather and day/night performance, NATO compatibility, state-of-the art safety and survivability features, and advanced onboard debriefing capabilities complying with international requirements. It has the ability to use Mark 82 and Mark 83 laser-guided bombs and air-to-air missiles, the short-range Vympel R-73.
The Sukhoi Su-28 (also designated Su-25UT – Uchebno-Trenirovochnyy) is an advanced basic jet trainer, built on the basis of the Su-25UB as a private initiative by the Sukhoi Design Bureau. The Su-28 is a light aircraft designed to replace the Czechoslovak Aero L-39 Albatros. Unlike the basic Su-25UB, it lacks a weapons-control system, built-in cannon, weapons hardpoints, and engine armour.
Su-25R (Razvedchik) – a tactical reconnaissance variant designed in 1978, but never built.
Su-25U3 (Uchebnyy 3-myestny) – also known as the "Russian Troika", was a three-seat basic trainer aircraft. The project was suspended in 1991 due to lack of funding.
Su-25U (Uchebnyy) – a trainer variant of Su-25s produced in Georgia between 1996 and 1998. Three aircraft were built in total, all for the Georgian Air Force.
Su-25M1 – modernized by Ukrainian Air Force, one built, few more are ordered.
Su-25UBM1 – modernized by Ukrainian Air Force.
People's Air and Air Defence Force of Angola. An agreement was reached at the beginning of 1988 between the Soviet Union and Angola that arranged for the delivery of a squadron of Su-25s. The Angolan export agreement comprised 12 single-seat Su-25Ks and two Su-25UBKs trainers. Later, these aircraft were augmented by further deliveries comprising at least three two-seater aircraft.
Armenian Air Force. Following the break-up of the Soviet Union, Armenia had no Su-25s in its inventory, but following the start of the conflict in Nagorno-Karabakh in 1991–92, the newly independent Republic of Armenia unofficially acquired a small number of aircraft, including one new Su-25K that was stolen from the Georgian Air Force on 15 November 1993 by Georgian Captain Sergey Zhitnikov and flown to Armenia. It operates 5 Su-25, 9 Su-25K and 1 Su-25UBK as of January 2009.
Azerbaijan Air Force. Like Armenia, Azerbaijan did not inherit any Su-25s after the collapse of the USSR, but a single aircraft was obtained in April 1992 as a consequence of a pilot defecting from the Russian Air Force base at Sital-Chai. Following the incident, Azerbaijan acquired at least five Su-25s through unofficial channels, and one more aircraft has been obtained as the result of yet another defection, this time from the Georgian Air Force. Other aircraft are believed to have been acquired later, as a 2001 inventory of Azerbaijan aircraft revealed that the Azerbaijan Air Force had three of the type in its inventory, after the reported loss of four Su-25s in combat operations relating to the disputed Nagorno-Karabakh region.
Belarus Air Force. After the break-up of the Soviet Union, Belarus was the second member state of the CIS, after Russia, to have a significant number of Su-25s. Seventy Su-25s and six Su-25UBs are reported to be operational and are mostly concentrated at Lida air base by 2004.
Bulgarian Air Force. Bulgaria was the second Warsaw Pact country to obtain the Su-25, acquiring its first examples of both Su-25K and the Su-25UBK in 1985. The aircraft were intended to replace the obsolete MiG-17F Fresco-Cwhich had been the backbone of the Bulgarian Air Force fighter-bomber fleet for many years. Twenty Su-25Ks and three Su-25UBKs were commissioned and were operational at Bezmer Air Base by 2004.
Chadian Air Force acquired a total of six aircraft (4 Su-25 and 2 Su-25UB) from Ukraine in 2008.
Air Force of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. In late 1999, the Tbilisi Aerospace Manufacturing plant signed a contract with the Democratic Republic of Congo for the delivery of 10 Su-25Ks to the Force Aerienne Congolaise. The deal was reported to be valued at 6 million US Dollars, and the first four aircraft were delivered on board an An-124 in November 1999. The remaining six aircraft were delivered in January 2000. One aircraft crashed in December 2006 during a routine flight, while another one crashed on 30 June 2007, during a Congolese independence day display.
Czechoslovakian Air Force. Passed aircraft on to successor states, in the ratio of 2:1 in favour of the Czech Republic.(historical)
Czech Air Force. After the dissolution of Czechoslovakia, the Czech Republic acquired twenty-four Su-25Ks and one Su-25UBK. In December 2000, the Czech Su-25s were retired from service and placed in storage at Přerov air base.
Equatorial Guinea Air Corps-In 2005, 4 Su 25s including 2 Su-25UB combat trainers were delivered to the Equatorial Guinea Air Corps. The current status of the aircraft is unknown.
Ethiopian Air Force. A pair of Su-25Ts and two Su-25UBK combat trainers were delivered to Ethiopia in the first quarter of 2000. The twin-seaters were withdrawn from Russian Air Force service and modified in accordance to a special request by the Ethiopian Air Force. Since acquiring the aircraft, the Ethiopians have used them in combat operations against Eritrean insurgent groups.
Georgian Air Force. Georgia, home to Tbilisi Aircraft Manufacturing which produced scores of single-seat Su-25s during the Soviet era, was left with virtually no aircraft following the break-up of the Soviet Union. Only a small number of single-seat Su-25s were actually brought into the inventory of the newly formed Georgian Air Force (now army air force), these aircraft having been left in the factory at the time of Georgian independence. Georgia had nine Su-25s of different variants, with eight of them being Su-25KM "Scorpion"s (an upgraded variants of the Su-25 in collaboration with Israel) as of 2004.
Gambian Army – operates one Su-25 as of 2008.
Islamic Revolutionary Guards Corps Air Force. On 21 January 1991, seven Iraqi Su-25s were flown to Iran in an effort to find a temporary safe haven from Operation Desert Storm attacks on major Iraqi airfields. These aircraft were considered by Iran to be a gift from its former adversary, and were seized by the Iranian military. However, as a result of a lack of spare parts, documentation, and pilot training, these aircraft were not flown by the Islamic Republic of Iran Air Force. Iran has added at least six new examples to its inventory and has since likely restored ex-Iraqi Su-25s to flight status as well.Reports indicate that some of the IRGCAF aircraft have been transferred back to Iraq in July 2014, to increase the latter's CAS and COIN capabilities.
Iraqi Air Force. During the course of the early phase of the Iran–Iraq War, Iraq approached the Soviet Union with a request to purchase a wide variety of military equipment. As a result, Iraq become the first, non-Warsaw Pactcountry to obtain the Su-25K and Su-25UBK combat trainer. It is believed that Iraq received a total of 73 examples, of which four were Su-25UBKs. In January 1998, the Iraqi Air Force still possessed 12 Su-25s, and at least three Su-25Ks were seen in a demonstration over Baghdad in December 2002. However, the remaining Su-25s were phased out immediately after the 2003 Invasion of Iraq. In 2014, the IQAF signed a deal with Russia and Belarus for the purchase of more examples, with the first five arriving on 28 June 2014. Reports indicate that a further seven were delivered from Iran on 1 July 2014, the majority of which were ex-Iraqi examples from the 1991 Gulf War.
Air Force of Ivory Coast. Nine French soldiers were killed and 23 wounded when two Ivorian Su-25s bombed French positions in Bouaké. As a result, French soldiers destroyed the Su-25s on the ground at Yamoussoukro air base.
Kazakh Air Force – received 12 single-seat Su-25s and two Su-25UB trainers in December 1995 as compensatory payment for the return of the Tu-95MS "Bear-H" strategic bombers which had been rapidly flown out of the republic at the time of the collapse of the USSR. The Kazakh Su-25s are located at Chimkent air base in the south of the country.
Macedonian Air Force. The Republic of Macedonia purchased three single-seat Su-25s and one Su-25UB following incursions and attacks by Albanian insurgents. The aircraft were supplied by Ukrainian authorities after having been withdrawn from Ukrainian Air Force service. The aircraft were retired in 2004, and sold to Georgia in 2005.
North Korean Air Force – North Korea was the first Asian country to obtain the Su-25. In the 1950s, the North Korean Air Force had accumulated experience operating the Su-25's piston-engined predecessor, the Ilyushin Il-10 "Beast". In the period from the end of 1987 until 1989, the DPRK acquired a total of 32 single-seat Su-25Ks and four Su-25UBKs. The aircraft are based at Sunchon Airport (20 km from Pyongyang), which features heavily fortified natural hangars equipped with blast-proof doors capable of protecting the aircraft from conventional andnuclear explosions.
Peruvian Air Force. Peru received 18 Su-25s in late 1998 from Belarus, which refurbished them prior to delivery. The shipment comprised 10 single-seat and eight dual-seat Su-25UB trainers. The aircraft were all built just before the collapse of the Soviet Union and thus represented the final versions of the Soviet Su-25. It is believed that between 1998 and December 2005, at least 25 light aircraft transporting cocaine had been shot down by the Peruvian Su-25s. As of February 2013, 18 Su-25s are in service, with only 4 aircraft operational.
Russian Air Force – Russia possesses a reduced fleet of Su-25s, which are operated by Attack Regiments. The major variants used are the single-seat Su-25, the twin-seat Su-25UB, and the Su-25BM target-towing version. In addition, the Russian Air Force received a small number of the Su-25T anti-tank variant, which have been tested under combat conditions in Chechnya. The Su-25 is also operated by the Russian Naval Aviation, both in standard, land-based Su-25 and Su-25UB guise, as well as in the specialised, Su-25UTG variant as a carrier-operable trainer. Overall, 286 Su-25s are in service with the Russian Air Force, including 10 being operated by the Navy as of 2008. A modernisation programme of single-seat Su-25s to the Su-25SM variant is underway. The first, modernised Su-25SM was delivered in August 2001. By March 2013, over 60 Su-25SMs were scheduled to be delivered. The modernisation programme is to conclude in 2020 with over 80 examples upgraded.
The Slovak Air Force received 12 Su-25Ks and one Su-25UBK following the dissolution of Czechoslovakia. The aircraft were based at the Slovak 33rd Air Base in Malacky-Kuchyna. They were sold to Armenia.
Soviet Air Force. Passed aircraft on to successor states.(historical)
Sudanese Air Force – had one Su-25 in service as of November 2008.Since 2008 it has reportedly obtained 15 aircraft from Belarus.
Turkmenistan Air Force– Following the downfall of the Soviet Union, the newly independent Republic of Turkmenistan was given 46 Su-25s which had been disassembled for storage in Turkmenistan at that time. In accordance with an agreement between Georgia and Turkmenistan in 1999, the Tbilisi Aerospace Manufacturing corporation refurbished 45 of these aircraft for use by the Turkmenistan Air Force as payment for the delivery of natural gas. The refurbished aircraft were relocated at Ak-Tepe air base, and a total of 18 operational Su-25s are known to be based there by 2004.
Ukrainian Air Force-Ukraine obtained 92 Su-25s of differing variants following the country's independence in the wake of the break-up of the USSR. Currently, the Ukrainian Air Force operates approximately 60 Su-25, Su-25UBs, and Su-25UTGs, which are operated by the 299th Independent Assault Regiment (299 OShAP) based at Kulbakino, Mykolaiv Oblast, and at Saki in the Crimea, and the 456th Assault Regiment (456 ShAP) at Chortkiv. Up to 30 Su-25s are reportedly stored at the 4070th Reserve Base. Evidently, three Su-25s sold to Macedonia came from this reserve pool. Also, Ukrainian Air Force modernized two types of the Su-25, one of them is Su-25M1 and Su-25UBM1.
Ukrainian Naval Aviation. Former operator.
Uzbekistan Air and Air Defence Forces-Until 1990, a Soviet Air Force pilot training centre equipped with around 20 Su-25, Su-25UB, and Su-25BM variants was located at Chirchik air base in Uzbekistan. In 1991, a small number of Su-25s were also located at Dzhizak air base, but after 1991, all Su-25s in Uzbekistan were concentrated at Chirchik, operated by the 59th Fighter-Bomber Aviation Regiment (59 APIB) of the Soviet Air Force. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, all the Su-25s on the territory of the now independent republic became the property of the new government.
BAe Sea Harrier
Sea Harrier FRS.1
57 FRS1s were delivered between 1978 and 1988; most survivors converted to Sea Harrier FA2 specifications from 1988.
Sea Harrier FRS.51
Single-seat fighter, reconnaissance and attack aircraft made for the Indian Navy, similar to the British FRS1. Unlike the FRS1 Sea Harrier, it is fitted with Matra R550 Magic air-to-air missiles. These aircraft were later upgraded with the Elta EL/M-2032 radar and the Rafael Derby BVRAAM missiles.
Sea Harrier F(A).2
Upgrade of FRS1 fleet in 1988, featuring the Blue Vixen Pulse-Doppler radar and the AIM-120 AMRAAM missile.
BAe Harrier II
The GR5 was the RAF's first model of the second-generation Harrier. The GR5 considerably differed from the USMC AV-8B in terms of avionics, armaments and countermeasures. Forty one GR5s were built.
The GR5A was a minor variant, incorporating design changes in anticipation of the GR7 upgrade. Twenty-one GR5As were built.
The GR7 is an upgraded model of the GR5. The first GR7 conducted its maiden flight in May 1990, and made its first operational deployment in August 1995 over the former Yugoslavia.
The GR7A feature an uprated Pegasus 107 engine. GR7As upgraded to GR9 standard retain the A designation as GR9As. The Mk 107 engine provides around 3,000 lbf (13 kN) extra thrust over the Mk 105's 21,750 lbf (98 kN) thrust.
The GR9 is an upgrade of the GR7, focused on the Harrier II's avionics and weapons. Upgraded under the JUMP programme.
The Harrier GR9A is an avionics and weapons upgrade of the uprated engined GR7As. All GR9s were capable of accepting the Mk 107 Pegasus engine to become GR9As.
The Harrier T10 is the first two seat training variant of the Harrier II; based on the USMC Harrier trainer the TAV-8B. Unlike their American counterparts, the T10s are fully combat-capable.
Update of the trainers to accompany the GR9. Nine T10 aircraft received the JUMP updates under the designation T12, however these would retain the less powerful Pegasus 105 engine.
Royal Air Force(historical)
United States Marine Corps
A two-seat advanced weapons trainer with additional avionics, an optional forward looking infrared, a redesigned wing and HOTAS.
Hawk 102 – Export version for Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates Air Force. Fitted with wingtip missile rails and Racal Prophet radar warning receiver (RWR). Eighteen ordered in 1989 and delivered between April 1993 and March 1994.
Hawk 103 – Lead-in fighter trainer for the Royal Air Force of Oman. Fitted with FLIR and laser ranger in extended nose, BAE Sky Guardian RWR and wingtip AAM rails. Four were ordered on 30 July 1990 and delivered from December 1993 to January 1994.
Hawk 108 – Export version for the Royal Malaysian Air Force. Fitted with BAE Sky Guardian RWR and wing tip AAM rails. Ten ordered December 1990, and delivered January 1994 to September 1995.
Hawk 109 – Export version for the Indonesian Air Force.
Hawk 115 – Export version for the Canadian Forces, designated CT-155 Hawk in Canadian service.
Hawk 129 – Export version for Bahrain.
The Hawk 200 is a single-seat,lightweight multi-role combat aircraft for air defence, air-denial, anti-shipping,interdiction, close air support, and ground attack.
Hawk 203 – Export version for the Royal Air Force of Oman.
Hawk 205 – Proposed export version for the Royal Saudi Air Force.
Hawk 208 – Export version for the Royal Malaysian Air Force.
Hawk 209 – Export version for the Indonesian Air Force.
Royal Australian Air Force – 33 Hawk 127s
Royal Bahraini Air Force – 6 Hawk 129s
Royal Canadian Air Force (formerly Canadian Forces Air Command) – 16 Hawk 115s
Finnish Air Force – 75 Hawks (50 Mk.51, 7 Mk.51A, 18 Mk.66)
Indian Air Force – 66 Hawk 132s (total 106 ordered for IAF) as of 2012
Indian Navy – 8 Hawk 132s (total 17 ordered)
Indonesian Air Force – 38 Hawk 53/109/209s
Kuwait Air Force – 10 Hawk 64s as of 2008
Royal Malaysian Air Force – 19 Hawk 108/208s
Royal Air Force of Oman – 15 Hawk 103/203s
Royal Saudi Air Force – 45 Hawk 65s
South African Air Force – 24 Hawk 120s
Royal Air Force – 81 Hawk T1s/28 Hawk T2s
United Arab Emirates Air Force– 36 Hawk 61/63/102s
Kenya Air Force – 7 Hawk 52s, out of service and retired as of 2012.
Republic of Korea Air Force introduced 20 T-59 (Hawk 67) in September 1992.Retired from service in 2013.
Swiss Air Force: 20 Hawk Mk. 66s were bought in 1992 but decommissioned in 2002, of which 18 were sold to Finland in June 2007.
Air Force of Zimbabwe – 12 Hawk 60 retired as of 2011 because of lack of spares and lack of BAE support.
Dassault Mirage 5/50
Mirage 5: Single-seat radarless ground-attack fighter aircraft.
Mirage 5AD: Export version of Mirage 5 for Abu Dhabi,UAE; 12 built.
Mirage 5EAD: Single-seat radar-equipped fighter-bomber version for Abu Dhabi,UAE. 14 built.
Mirage 5BA: Single-seat version of the Mirage 5 for Belgium, fitted with mainly US avionics; 63 built, 62 under license by SABCA.
Mirage 5COA: Export version of the Mirage 5 for Colombia. 14 built.Remaining aircraft upgraged by IAI with canards and new avionics.
Mirage 5D: Export single-seat ground attack aircraft of the Mirage 5 for Libya; 53 built.
Mirage 5DE: Single-seat radar-equipped fighter-bomber version for Libya.
Mirage 5F: Single-seat ground-attack fighter aircraft for the French Air Force. 50 ex-Israeli Mirage 5Js.Eight aircraft withdrawn for conversion to Mirage 50C for Chile, with eight new-build 5Fs built as replacements.
Mirage 5G: Export version of the Mirage 5 for Gabon. Three built.
Mirage 5G-2: Four upgraded aircraft for Gabon, two of which were upgraded 5G and two undelivered ex-Zaire 5M.
Mirage 5J: 50 aircraft were ordered by Israel, but the order was later embargoed by the French government. They were delivered instead to theFrench Air Force as the Mirage 5F.
Mirage 5M: Export version of the Mirage 5 for Zaire;14 built, of which only 8 delivered to Zaire owing to funding shortages.
Mirage 5MA Elkan: Upgraded Mirage 5BA aircraft sold to Chile.
Mirage 5P: Export version of the Mirage 5 for Peru; 22 built.
Mirage 5P Mara: Upgraded Mirage 5P aircraft for Argentina.
Mirage 5P3: Upgraded aircraft for Peru; 10 built.
Mirage 5P4: Upgraded aircraft for Peru; two built new plus upgraded older aircraft.
Mirage 5PA: Single-seat radarless version of the Mirage 5 for Pakistan. 28 built.
Mirage 5PA2: New build radar equipped aircraft for Pakistan, fitted with Cyrano IV radar. 28 built.
Mirage 5PA3: New build radar-equipped anti-shipping aircraft for Pakistan, fitted with an Agave radar for compatibility with Exocet anti-ship missile.
Mirage 5SDE: Single-seat radar-equipped fighter-bomber version for Egypt, equivalent to Mirage IIIE; 54 built.
Mirage 5E2: Upgraded radarless attack version for Egypt. 16 built.
Mirage 5V: Single-seat ground attack aircraft 5 for Venezuela; six built. Survivors rebuilt to Mirage 50EV standard.
Mirage 5R: Single-seat reconnaissance aircraft.Mirage 5BR: Reconnaissance version of 5BA for Belgium; 27 built, 23 in Belgium.
Mirage 5COR: Export version of the Mirage 5R for Colombia;two built.
Mirage 5DR: Export version of the Mirage 5R for Libya; 10 built.
Mirage 5RAD: Export version of the Mirage 5R for Abu Dhabi,UAE; three built.
Mirage 5SDR: Export version of the Mirage 5R for Egypt; six built.
Mirage 5Dx: Two-seat training version.
Mirage 5BD: Two-seat trainer version of 5BA for Belgium; 16 built, 15 built locally.
Mirage 5COD: Two-seat trainer for Colombia. Two built.Upgraded with canards and new avionics.
Mirage 5DAD: Two-seat trainer for Abu Dhabi, UAE. Three built.
Mirage 5DD: Two-seat trainer for Libya; 15 built.
Mirage 5DG: Two-seat trainer for Gabon; four built, two delivered 1978 and two in 1984.
Mirage 5DM: Two-seat trainer for Zaire; three built, all of which were delivered.
Mirage 5DP: Two-seat trainer for Peru; four delivered.
Mirage 5DP3: Updated trainer for Peru. Two new build plus upgrade of remaining 5DPs.
Mirage 5DPA2: Two-seat trainer version of 5 for Pakistan; two built.
Mirage 5MD Elkan: Upgraded Mirage 5BD aircraft sold to Chile.
Mirage 5SDD: Two-seat trainer for Egypt; six built.
Mirage 50: Single-seat multi-role fighter-bomber, ground-attack aircraft, powered by more powerful 49.2 kN (11,055 lbf) dry, 70.6 kN (15,870 lbf) with reheat Atar 9K-50 engine. Available with or without radar.
Mirage 50C: New build radar-equipped Mirage 50 for Chile; six built.
Mirage 50FC: Eight re-engined Mirage 5F aircraft sold to Chile.
Mirage 50DC: Two-seat training version for Chile. Three built, two with lower powered Atar 9C-3 engine.
Mirage 50CN Pantera: Mirage 50C and 50FC aircraft upgraded by ENAER with help from the Israeli company IAI for Chile with canards, revised, Kfir style nose and new avionics; 13 50C and FC upgraded plus two 50DC trainers.
Mirage 50EV: Upgraded Mirage 5V aircraft for Venezuela, with Atar 9K-50 engine, canards and updated avionics (including radar).Six new-build aircraft, three upgraded ex-Zaire 5M, plus six upgraded remaining IIIEV and 5Vs.
Mirage 50DV: Upgraded Mirage IIIDV/5DV aircraft for Venezuela, similar standard to 50EV.One new build plus two upgrades.
Mirage Project ROSE: An upgrade version of Mirage built by Pakistan Air Force in Mirage rebuild factory, Kamra. Project ROSE started by Pakistan Air Force in mid 80s. These aircrafts have aveonics,cockpit,air frame and strike elements upgrade. Mirage ROSE 3 the latest version of Mirage has air to air refuel capabilty and air to ground Cruise missile Ra'ad. Which can carry nuclear warhead.
United Arab Emirates (Abu Dhabi, retired and sold to Pakistan)
Argentina (from Peru and IAI Nesher from Israel. Retired in 2013)
Belgian Air Force(retired in 1993, 25 Mirage 5M Elkans sold to Chile)
Chile(retired in 2006–2007)
Ecuador(donated by Venezuela)
Israel(IAI Nesher, retired, some sold to Argentina)
Libya(retired, sold to Pakistan)
Pakistan(PAF operates about 90 Mirages 5. PAF is operating Mirage ROSE1,2,3 with avionics,cockpit,design and air to air refuel upgrade. It is estimated all Mirages would be replaced by JF-17 , currently 38 Mirages active with Pakistan Navy.)
Peru(12 remaining aircraft retired from inventory on 14 June 2008)
South Africa(IAI Nesher, converted to Cheetah configuration)
Dassault-Breguet Super Étendard
Super Étendard M
Iraqi Air Force(historical)
Panavia Tornado IDS
RAF IDS variants were initially designated the Tornado GR1 with later modified aircraft designated Tornado GR1A, Tornado GR1B, Tornado GR4 and Tornado GR4A. The first of 228 GR1s was delivered on 5 June 1979, and the type entered service in the early 1980s. A total of 142 aircraft were upgraded to GR4 standard from 1997 to 2003.
The Tornado GR1B was a specialized anti-shipping variant of the GR1. A total of 26 were converted,which were based at RAF Lossiemouth, Scotland, replacing the Blackburn Buccaneer. Each aircraft was equipped to carry up to four Sea Eagle anti-ship missiles.At first the GR1B lacked the radar capability to track shipping, instead relying on the missile's seeker for target acquisition, later updates allowed target data to be fed from aircraft to missile.
In 1984, the UK Ministry of Defence began studies for a GR1 Mid-Life Update (MLU). The update to GR4 standard, approved in 1994, would improve capability in the medium-altitude role based on lessons learned from the GR1's performance in the 1991 Gulf War. British Aerospace (later BAE Systems) upgraded 142 Tornado GR1s to GR4 standard, beginning in 1996 and finished in 2003.59 RAF aircraft are receiving the CUSP avionics package which integrates the Paveway IV bomb and installs a new secure communications module from Cassidian in Phase A,followed by the Tactical Information Exchange (TIE) datalink from General Dynamics in Phase B.
The GR1A is the reconnaissance variant used by the RAF and RSAF, fitted with the TIRRS (Tornado Infra-Red Reconnaissance System), replacing the cannon.The RAF ordered 30 GR1As, 14 as GR1 rebuilds and 16 as new-builds.When the Tornado GR1s were upgraded to become GR4s, GR1A aircraft were upgraded to GR4A standard.The switch from low-level operations to medium/high-level operations means that the internal TIRRS is no longer in use. As the GR4A's internal sensors are no longer essential, the RAF's Tactical Reconnaissance Wing operate both GR4A and GR4 aircraft.
Royal Air Force
Italian Air Force
Royal Saudi Air Force
Royal Air Force
Italian Air Force
Royal Saudi Air Force
Single-seat all-weather tactical strike, ground-attack fighter version for the French Air Force, two prototypes and 160 production aircraft built.
Jaguar B / Jaguar T2
Two-seat training version for the Royal Air Force, one prototype and 38 production aircraft built.Capable of secondary role of strike and ground attack.Two flown by Empire Test Pilots School and one by Institute of Aviation Medicine. Equipped for inflight refueling and with a single Aden cannon.
Jaguar T2 upgrade similar to GR1A, 14 conversions from T2.
two Jaguar T2A aircraft given TIALD capability.An "unofficial" designation.
Jaguar T2A upgraded to Jaguar 96 standard.
Two-seat training version for the French Air Force, two prototypes and 40 production aircraft built.
Jaguar S / Jaguar GR1
Single-seat all-weather tactical strike, ground-attack fighter version for the Royal Air Force, 165 built.Equipped with NAVigation And Weapon Aiming Sub-System (NAVWASS) for attacking without use of radar. Ferranti "laser ranger and marked target seeker" added to nose during production Engines replaced by Adour Mk 104 from 1978.
Jaguar GR1 with navigation (NAVWASS II), chaff/flare, ECM and Sidewinder capability upgrades, 75 conversions from GR1.
Ten GR1 aircraft modified to carry TIALD pods.
Jaguar 96 avionics upgrade to GR1A.
Jaguar 97 avionics upgrade to GR1B/GR3.
Single-seat naval strike prototype for the French Navy, one built.
Jaguar Active Control Technology
One Jaguar converted into a research aircraft.
Export versions based on either the Jaguar S or Jaguar B.
Export version of the Jaguar S for the Ecuadorian Air Force, 10 built.
Export version of the Jaguar B for the Ecuadorian Air Force, two built.
Export version of the Jaguar S for the Royal Air Force of Oman, 20 built.
Export version of the Jaguar B for the Royal Air Force of Oman, four built.
Single-seat all-weather tactical strike, ground-attack fighter for the Indian Air Force, 35 built by BAe and 89 built by HAL (Shamser).
Two-seat training version for the Indian Air Force, five built by BAe and 27 built by HAL.
Single-seat maritime anti-shipping aircraft for the Indian Air Force. Fitted with Agave radar and capable of carrying Sea Eagle anti-ship missile, 12 built by HAL.
Export version of the Jaguar S for the Nigerian Air Force, 13 built.
Export version of the Jaguar B for the Nigerian Air Force, five built.
Armée de l'Air(historical)
Indian Air Force Jaguar M/S
Nigerian Air Force(historical)
Royal Air Force of Oman(historical)
Royal Air Force(historical)
Dassault/Dornier Alpha Jet
Alpha Jet E: Trainer version originally used by France and Belgium.
Alpha Jet 2: Development of the Alpha Jet E optimized for ground attack. This version was originally named theAlpha Jet NGAE (Nouvelle Generation Appui/Ecole or "New Generation Attack/Training"),
Alpha Jet MS1: Close support-capable version assembled in Egypt.
Alpha Jet MS2: Improved version with new avionics, an uprated engine, Magic Air-to-Air missiles, and a Lancier glass cockpit.
Alpha Jet ATS(Advanced Training System): A version fitted with multi-functional controls and a glass cockpit that will train pilots in the use of navigation and attack systems of the latest and future generation fighter aircraft. This version was also called the Alpha Jet 3 or Lancier.
Belgian Air Component(Alpha Jet E) – 26 based in France
Cameroon Air Force(Alpha Jet MS2) – 27 ( 11 are in service)
Discovery Air Defence Services – 16 (former Luftwaffe Alpha Jet Aircraft) based in Montreal and operated by Canadian Air Combat and Electronic Warfare Support Services Company as well as 414 Squadron.
Egypt Air Force(Alpha Jet MS2 and E) – 14 MS2 and 40 E (MS1), All upgraded to (MS2)
French Air Force(Alpha Jet E) – 99
Royal Moroccan Air Force(Alpha Jet E) – 24
Nigerian Air Force(Alpha Jet E) – 24
Portuguese Air Force– 50 (Alpha Jet A, former Luftwaffe aircraft)
Qatar Emiri Air Force(Alpha Jet E) – six
Royal Thai Air Force(25 Alpha Jet A – former Luftwaffe aircraft)
Togo Air Force– 12 (Alpha Jet E)
UK QinetiQ– six (Alpha Jet A, former Luftwaffe aircraft)
German Air Force– 93 (Alpha Jet A)(historical)
Côte d'Ivoire Air Force(Alpha Jet E) – seven(historical)
AMX International AMX
AMX International AMX
In 1986, development of a two-seat advanced trainer variant was undertaken. This was intended to provide trainee pilots with experience on fast jets, while still retaining the single-seater's attack capabilities. First flying in 1990, the AMX-T equipped both the Italian and Brazilian air forces.
The AMX Advanced Trainer Attack (AMX-ATA) is a new AMX two-seater multi-mission attack fighter developed for combat roles and advanced training. The AMX-ATA incorporates new sensors, a forward-looking infrared helmet-mounted display, a new multi-mode radar for air-to-air and air-to-surface capability, and new weapons systems including anti-ship missiles and medium-range missiles. The Venezuelan Air Force ordered eight AMX-ATA in 1999 for the advanced trainer and attack aircraft role, but the US Congress vetoed the sale because the aircraft systems include US technology.
An AMX variant designed for reconnaissance missions. Various reconnaissance pallets can be fitted; used by the Brazilian Air Force.
The product of a Brazilian upgrade program of their A-1s; significant features include a Mectron SCP-01 Scipio radar,Embraer BR2 data link, FLIR Systems navigation equipment,Elbit INS/GPS/databus, the adoption of a glass cockpit,a new OBOGS system and HMD DASH IV.
Italian military designation for the AMX from 2012.
Italian military designation for the AMX-T from 2012.
Italian military designation for the AMX ACOL from 2012.
Italian military designation for the AMX-T ACOL from 2012.
Brazilian Air Force
Italian Air Force
Italian Air Force
Q-5: Original production version with a total of 6 pylons, one under each wing and four under the fuselage, and was superseded by the Q-5A.
Q-5 nuclear bomber: Q-5A modified to carry nuclear bombs, only a very limited number were built. One of such aircraft is currently on display at the aviation museum in Beijing.
Q-5 Anti-ship missile carrier: Replacement for the torpedo bomber armed with Type 317A (317甲) airborne radar, an improvement of the original Type 317, and the maximum range is increased by over 50 km. Only a very limited number entered the service and by the 1980s, these aircraft were withdrawn from front line service.
Q-5I: Q-5A with the internal weapon bay replaced by internal fuel tank, increasing fuel capacity over 70%. Like all previous Q-5 variants, navigation was still a bottle neck resulting in aircraft must fly longer times in more complex search patterns in long range strikes. However, this problem is somewhat reduced by the increased fuel capacity.
Q-5IA: The original weapon aiming sight of the Q-5 was developed by No. 5311 Factory, and named as SH-1, short for She – Hong (Shoot-Bomb-1 / 射轰-1), which only had limited capability because attacks could only carried out at a fixed angle. No. 5311 Factory developed an improved version SH-1I (射轰-1甲) to allow the attack to be carried out at different angles. To solve the navigation problem, the Type 205 pulse doppler navigation radar was developed and installed. An indigenous Type 79Y4 laser rangefinder developed by No. 613 Institute was fitted.
Q-5II: Q-5IA with added radar warning receivers, and a new HK-15 laser rangefinder developed by No. 613 Institute replaced the older Type 79Y4. A new weapon aiming sight SH-1II (射轰-1乙) replaced the older SH-1I (射轰-1甲), and No. 5311 Factory managed to successfully integrated this sight with the new laser rangefinder and Type 205 navigation radar.
Q-5III: Domestic Chinese upgrade of Q-5II with indigenous inertial navigation system and JQ-1 Head-Up Display.
Q-5IV: 28.8% change in comparison to the closest earlier version. Q-5III upgrade first appeared in the early 1990s. Two central computers like that of Q-5M and new RW-30 radar warning receivers were added. ALR-1 laser rangefinder and QHK-10 Head-Up Display developed by No. 613 Institute were added. Also known as Q-5D.
Q-5A: Q-5 with 8 pylons, with 1 extra pylon under each wing for AA-2 Atoll air-to-air missiles.
Hongdu Q-5D – An attack variant, developed at Hongdu, with ALR-1 Laser rangefinder/Marked Target seeker and possibly LLLTV/FLIR vision systems for a day/night capability. Other improvements include Head Up Display, GPS Rx, INS, TACAN, and chaff/flare dispensers. Weapons capability include the Chinese LS-500J laser-guided glide bombs with a 12 km range.
Nanchang Q-5D – (Dian – electronic intelligence) An ELINT platform confusingly given the same designation as the Q-5D attack aircraft.
Q-5E: Q-5IV development, with ability to drop laser-guided bombs such as LS-500J LGB via a laser targeting pod, and GPS was added.
Q-5F: Further development of Q-5E with semi-buried electro-optical targeting pod that not only included laser designator/ranger, but also infrared imaging and television cameras. The separated inertial navigation systemand the GPS in the Q-5IV/E was replaced by the DG-1 integrated inertial navigation/GPS system.
Q-5J: Tandem two seater of Q-5. The manufacturer claimed that it can be used as forward air control like the OA-10A, and providing targeting information via data links. The rear seat is 286 millimetres higher than the front seat, enables the back-seat pilot to have a 5 degree field of vision, and the canopy opens to the right. When used as a trainer, the rear cockpit control can override that of the front cockpit.
Q-5K Kong Yun: (Kong Yun – Cloud) Joint Chinese-French project to upgrade Q-5II with French avionics, such as VE110 head-Up Display, ULIS91 inertial navigation system, TMV630 laser rangefinder and other electro-optics. Like the Q-5M/A-5M, the project was also cancelled after the Tiananmen Square protest of 1989.
Q-5M: Export designation A-5M. Joint Chinese-Italian project to upgrade the Q-5II with Italian avionics from theAMX International AMX attack fighter. Avionics would include a ranging radar, head-up display, inertial navigation system, air data computer and dual central computers all integrated via dual-redundant MIL-STD-1553B data bus. Completion and first deliveries were to take place in late 1988 and early 1989 respectively. Although the project was eventually cancelled after the Tiananmen Square protest of 1989, the Chinese version of the radar was eventually used on J-7GB.
A-5:Export designation for version of the Q-5 to North Korea that appeared in Chinese media. The designation contains more than one variant since the Chinese military aid to North Korea is protracted, but it's not clear whether this export version is derived from Q-5, Q-5A, Q-5I or Q-5IA.
A-5B: Export version of Q-5II with capability to launch western missiles such as the French R550 Magic Air-to-air missiles. Reported sold to Myanmar.
A-5C: Export version of Q-5III with more western equipment upon customers' requests, such as flight instrumentation made by Rockwell Collins, and western ejection seat made by Martin-Baker. Added the capability to fire western missiles such as the R550 Magic or AIM-9 Sidewinder. Exported to Bangladesh and Pakistan. Bangladesh Air Force's A-5Cs have been upgraded in 2008 to fire LS-6 and LT-2 ground attack munitions giving them advanced strike capability.
A-5D:Export version of Q-5IV, with more western equipment upon customers' requests, such as flight instrumentation made by Rockwell Collins, and western ejection seat made by Martin-Baker. Added the capability to fire western missiles such as the R550 Magic or AIM-9 Sidewinder. No sales reported. Program terminated because all resources on this program was diverted to support the Q-5E.
A-5K: Export version of Q-5K with more western equipment such as flight instrumentation made by Rockwell Collins, and western ejection seat made by Martin-Baker. Added the capability to fire western missiles such as the R550 Magic or AIM-9 Sidewinder. Cancelled with Q-5K after the Tiananmen Square protest of 1989.
A-5M: Export version of Q-5M with more western equipment such as flight instrumentation made by Rockwell Collins, and western ejection seat made by Martin-Baker. Added the capability to fire western missiles such as the R550 Magic or AIM-9 Sidewinder. Cancelled with Q-5M after the Tiananmen Square protest of 1989. Evaluated by the Pakistan Air Force in 1990.
Bangladesh Air Force A-5C(Historical)
Myanmar Air Force: 22 A-5M in service in 2010.
North Korean Air Force
People's Liberation Army Air Force: Q-5/Q-5D/Q-5E
People's Liberation Army Navy Air Force: 30 Q-5 in service in 2010.
Sudanese Air Force
Myanmar Air Force: 22 A-5M in service in 2010.
North Korean Air Force
People's Liberation Army Air Force: Q-5/Q-5D/Q-5E
People's Liberation Army Navy Air Force: 30 Q-5 in service in 2010.
Sudanese Air Force
JH-7 – Initial production version of the PLANAF anti-shipping fighter-bomber.
JH-7A – Later production utilising composite structure to reduce weight, improved flying control system and improved avionics including the JL10A Shan Ying J-band Pulse-Doppler radar. Weapon loads increased by the addition of two more wing hardpoints and two hardpoints under the intake trunking for mission pods such as targeting pods.
JH-7B - New variant, with upgraded avionics, engines with 15% more thrust, in flight refueling, upgraded mission computer, full authority digital fly-by-wire system, and greater use of composite materials.
FBC-1 Flying Leopard – Export version of the JH-7.
FBC-1A Flying Leopard II – Export version of the JH-7A.
使用國People's Liberation Army Naval Air Force - JH-7A in 4 regiments
People's Liberation Army Air Force - JH-7/JH-7A in 5 regiments